See Diversity and Inclusion

Daly Rules Approach

A set of three operational rules that define the conditions of ecological sustainability.

Dark green

Ethical investments are sometimes described as exhibiting various shades of green, and dark green funds put ethical issues at their core.

Dasgupta Review

An independent review on the economics of biodiversity, commissioned by the UK government and produced by Professor Sir Partha Dasgupta from the University of Cambridge.

Data room

A virtual space used to store and secure digital information.

Data security

A broad set of standards, technologies and practices developed to protect data from accidental or intentional destruction, modification or disclosure.

Davies Review

A commission initiated by government in the United Kingdom to examine the underrepresentation of women on boards.


In an ESG context, the level of outcome that would have occurred without an intervention, normally represented as a percentage.

Debt Finance

Capital for expansion, acquisition or working capital in the form of instruments such as loans, bonds, bills, notes and securitisation.

Debt for Nature Swap

A financial transaction that involves foreign debt being purchased and replaced with new, less expensive debt and using the funds saved to fund conservation projects and activities.


Reduction in the carbon intensity of worldwide energy use.

Decarbonised economy

An economy that has taken steps to implement decarbonisation procedures in pursuit of becoming a low-carbon economy.


In the context of climate change, where economic growth is no longer strongly associated with consumption of fossil fuels.

Deepwater Horizon

An oil rig operating in the Gulf of Mexico that caught fire on 20 April 2010, leading to the largest marine oil pollution incident in history.


Deliberate removal of forest or tree cover, usually for land clearance or commercial use of the timber.

Delegated Authority

When a governing body authorises another party to make decisions on their behalf.

Demand- and supply-side measures

Policies and programmes for influencing the demand for goods and/or services and how this demand is met.

Demand-side integrity

The requirement that that carbon credits deliver the emissions reduction they claim to represent, and demand-side integrity, i.e. that the purchaser of the carbon credit is using it as part of a credible strategy in line with achieving the goals of achieving the Paris Agreement.

Demographic greening and misdirection

A form of misdirection in which advertisers seek to direct market attention away from their core business activities, by focusing advertising on topics unrelated to those activities.


The process of removing dissolved salts and other minerals from water.

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