African Parks

A non-profit conservation organisation that takes on the complete responsibility for the rehabilitation and long-term management of national parks in partnership with governments and local communities.

Aichi Biodiversity Targets

20 time-bound, measurable targets in The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity which were to have been met by 2020.

Avoided deforestation

Protecting native forest in areas that would otherwise be cleared for crops or grassland.


The variety among all living organisms including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part.

Biodiversity Action Plan

An internationally recognised plan to address threatened species and habitats and to protect and restore biological systems.

Biodiversity net gain (BNG)

An approach to development, and/or land management, that aims to leave the natural environment in a measurably better state than it was beforehand.

Biodiversity Offset

The production, utilisation, and conservation of biological resources — including related knowledge, science, technology, and innovation — to provide products, processes, and services across economic sectors that foster a sustainable economy.


See: Biodiversity net gain (BNG)

Bonn Challenge

An initiative launched by Germany and the IUCN with the aim of reforestation.

Coalition for Rainforest Nations

A voluntary grouping, largely of developing nations with rainforests, which addresses issues surrounding environmental sustainability specific to tropical rainforests.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

A multilateral treaty that establishes three goals covering conservation, sustainability and equitable sharing of the benefits of genetic resources.

Deepwater Horizon

An oil rig operating in the Gulf of Mexico that caught fire on 20 April 2010, leading to the largest marine oil pollution incident in history.


Deliberate removal of forest or tree cover, usually for land clearance or commercial use of the timber.


Land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors.

Earth overshoot day

Marks the date each year on which humanity exhausts nature’s ‘budget’ for the year, hence for the rest of the year, we maintain an ecological deficit by drawing down local resource stocks at rates faster than can be replenished and accumulate increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Ecosystem Integrity Index (EII)

A tool for evaluating and monitoring integrity of agroecosystems.


See Ecosystem Integrity Index (EII)

Endangered Species

Any group of living organisms (e.g. animals, plants, fungi, bacteria) that meets the IUCN criteria for facing a “very high risk of extinction in the wild.”

Extinction Event

When a relatively large percentage of species become extinct in a relatively short amount of time, leading to a sharp decline in biodiversity.

FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, 1983

A treaty that enables global access to plant genetic materials.

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