Acidification of the Oceans

Chemical reactions that occur when CO2 reacts with seawater in ways that reduce seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration and saturation states of biologically important calcium carbonate minerals.

Barcelona Convention for Protection against Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea, 1976

A regional framework applicable to countries adjoining or operating in the Mediterranean Sea, to prevent pollution of and protect the natural environments in that sea.

Blue Action Lab

An NGO based in Freeport, Grand Bahama Island, that provides a platform to rapidly develop, test, scale and finance novel technologies related to the blue economy, especially related to island and other coastal resilience to climate change.

Blue Climate Initiative

A multi-year program focused on combatting climate change and protecting the oceans.

Blue economy

The sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystems. (World Bank)

Bonn Agreement, 1969

An agreement among the coastal nations of the North Sea in 1969 to cooperate in the avoidance and combating of environmental pollution in the North Sea.

Coastal waters

Waters at the interface between terrestrial environments and the open ocean.

Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region, Abidjan, 1981

A comprehensive umbrella agreement for the protection and management of the marine and coastal areas, signed in Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire, 1981

Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), Canberra, 1980

An international treaty that was adopted at the Conference on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, Canberra, Australia, 7–20 May 1980.

Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region, Cartagena de Indias, 1983

A regional legal agreement for the protection of the Caribbean Sea, adopted in Cartagena, Colombia on 24 March 1983 and coming into force on 11 October 1986.

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Area of the South East Pacific, Lima, 1981

A regional framework applicable to the South East Pacific, for the protection of the marine environment and coastal areas in that region.

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), Paris, 1992

The mechanism by which fifteen Governments of the western coasts and catchments of Europe, together with the European Union, cooperate to protect and conserve the North East Atlantic and its resources.

Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region, Nouméa, 1986

A comprehensive umbrella agreement for the protection, management and development of the marine and coastal environment of the South Pacific Region, adopted in 1982 on behalf of the South Pacific Conference on Human Environment.

Convention of the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region, 1985 (Nairobi Convention)

A regional platform applicable to East Africa, being a partnership between governments, civil society and the private sector, to promote a prosperous Western Indian Ocean Region with healthy rivers, coasts and oceans.

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas, 1958

An agreement intended to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, and to avoid them being overexploited.

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter, 1972

A convention that seeks to promote the effective control of all sources of marine pollution and to take all practicable steps to prevent pollution of the sea by dumping of wastes and other matter.

Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution, 1992 (Bucharest Convention)

A regional framework applicable to countries adjoining the Black Sea, for regional cooperation to protect the coastal and marine environment in that sea.

Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992 (Helsinki Convention / HELCOM)

A regional platform applicable to countries adjoining or using the Baltic Sea, that seeks to address the increasing environmental challenges from industrialisation and other human activities.

Coral bleaching

The process in which, under environmental stress, a coral colony expels the microscopic algae (zooxanthellae) that live in symbiosis with their host organisms (polyps). the microscopic algae (zooxanthellae) that live in symbiosis with their host organisms (polyps).

Deepwater Horizon

An oil rig operating in the Gulf of Mexico that caught fire on 20 April 2010, leading to the largest marine oil pollution incident in history.

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