Air capture

The direct capture of CO2 and other GHGs from the atmosphere.

Air capture credits

See Air Capture

Anthropogenic removals

The withdrawal of GHGs from the atmosphere as a result of deliberate human activities.

Bioenergy with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS)

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology applied to a bioenergy facility.


An approach to innovation that seeks sustainable solutions to man-made problems by emulating nature’s patterns and strategies. Biomimicry also occurs naturally in the wild.

Internet of Things (IoT)

The network of internet-connected computing devices embedded in everyday objects such as cars, phones and computers, enabling them to send and receive data.

Nature-Based Solutions

Actions designed to sustainably manage, protect and restore ecosystems, addressing societal challenges effectively and adaptively, while providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits.

Net negative emissions

When, as result of human activities, more greenhouse gases are removed from the atmosphere than are emitted into it.

No-regrets option

Actions that are cost-effective under current climate conditions, are consistent with addressing risks of climate change and possess no hard trade-offs with other policy objectives.

Socio-technical transitions

Socio-technical transitions are where technological change is associated with social systems and the two are inextricably linked.

Solar radiation modification (SRM)

Refers to the intentional modification of the earth’s shortwave radiative budget with the aim of reducing warming.

Sustainable technology

Technology which can contribute to a more resource-efficient future and is mainly found in four areas: renewable energy, digitalisation, decarbonisation and circular economy.


Technological services and products that are designed to produce a positive social and/or environmental outcome.

Technology transfer

The exchange of knowledge, hardware and associated software, money and goods among stakeholders, which leads to the spread of technology for adaptation or mitigation.