Acute risks

Risks involving extremely severe, short-term scenarios that would have an obvious and immediate impact.

Article 4 Firm-level Disclosures

Firm-level Disclosures on Principal Adverse Sustainability Impacts required by Article 4 of SFDR.


The outcome and process of providing stakeholders with a degree of confidence or comfort.

Bali Agenda for Resilience

Title of the Co-Chairs’ Summary of the seventh session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, Bali, Indonesia, 25-27 May 2022.

Carbon transition risk

The risk a company faces by transitioning to a low-carbon economy.

Cleaner production

A preventive environmental strategy applied to processes and products to increase overall efficiency.

Climate risk

Risk resulting from the negative effects of Climate Change.

Compliance Risk

The degree to which a company complies with laws and regulations.

Controversy / Business controversy

In an ESG context, an event that negatively impacts a company’s sustainability performance and exposes investments to a variety of risks

Credit Rating Agency

A professional service provider specialised in the analysis of risk, such as the creditworthiness of a company or bond issue.

Critical Incident Risk Management

Corporate planning to identify, prevent and manage catastrophic events.

Customer privacy

The guiding principle informing a broad set of policies and regulations to protect the personally identifiable information of consumers.

Data security

A broad set of standards, technologies and practices developed to protect data from accidental or intentional destruction, modification or disclosure.

Disaster risk management (DRM)

Processes for designing, implementing, and evaluating strategies, policies, and measures to improve the understanding and implementation of disaster risk.

Early warning system

The set of technical, financial and institutional capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organisations threatened by a hazard to prepare to act promptly and appropriately to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.

Ecological Risk

The potential for a given event, action or series of actions to affect an ecosystem.

Enterprise Risk Management

The consideration of risk from a broad organisational perspective.

Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction

A multi-stakeholder forum that is an avenue to share knowledge and discuss the latest developments and trends in reducing disaster risk.


The potential occurrence of a natural or human-induced physical event or trend that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts as well as damage to and loss of property, infrastructure, livelihoods, service provision, ecosystems and environmental resources.

Hazardous Substance

Any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) that can be detrimental to human health.

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