- Abatement cost curve
See marginal abatement cost curve
- Abatement potential
The amount of GHG reductions that could be technologically and economically feasible to achieve.
- Activity Metrics
Data points that measure a company’s ability to use its resources efficiently.
- Activity-Based Costing (ABC)
A method used to determine the entire cost of all activities needed to create a product.
- Base of the Pyramid
In economics, refers to the nearly two-thirds of humanity (>4 billion people) living in poverty
- Black-Scholes Model
A pricing model for financial instruments.
- Blue economy
The sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystems. (World Bank)
- Capital Market Efficiency
The degree to which market prices reflect all available, relevant information.
- Circular economy
A model of production and consumption which maintains the use of materials and products for as long as possible by reuse, repair and recycling.
- Circular inflow
In a circular system, either renewable inflows that are used at a rate in line with natural cycles of renewability or non-virgin inflows.
- Circular outflow
In a circular system, outflows that are designed and treated in a manner that ensures products and materials have a full recovery potential and extend their economic lifetime after their technical lifetime, and are demonstrably recovered.
- Climate economics
A branch of economics focused on the costs and benefits of climate change and its mitigation.
- Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review (CPEIR)
A tool to analyse a country’s public expenditures and how they relate to Climate Change.
- Demand- and supply-side measures
Policies and programmes for influencing the demand for goods and/or services and how this demand is met.
- Demand-side integrity
The requirement that that carbon credits deliver the emissions reduction they claim to represent, and demand-side integrity, i.e. that the purchaser of the carbon credit is using it as part of a credible strategy in line with achieving the goals of achieving the Paris Agreement.
- Discount rate
The rate of return used to discount future cash flows back to their present value.
A mathematical operation that aims to make monetary (or other) amounts comparable across time.
- Doughnut Economics
An economic model that builds on the Planetary Boundaries model. It is not a set of policies but a way of thinking that brings about regenerative and distributive dynamics.
A concept in economics referring to a cost paid or a benefit received by a party that was not involved in the production of that cost or benefit.
- Flow resource
A resource which is neither renewable nor non-renewable, and must be used where it occurs and replenishes itself.