Baseline scenario

Scenarios based on the assumption that no mitigation policies or measures will be implemented beyond those that are already in force, legislated or planned to be adopted.


Standard performance metrics for measuring success versus an index, peer group or target.

Benefit period

The period of time between which outcomes begin and end.

Business as usual (BAU)

See Baseline scenario

Daly Rules Approach

A set of three operational rules that define the conditions of ecological sustainability.


In an ESG context, an assessment of how much of the change is a net benefit (i.e. a new change) rather than simply the movement of outcome within a system.

Ecological Footprint

The impact of human activities measured in terms of the area of biologically productive land and water required to produce the goods consumed and to assimilate the wastes generated.

Ecological Impact

The effect of human activities and natural events on living organisms and their non-living environment.

Ecological Risk

The potential for a given event, action or series of actions to affect an ecosystem.

Ecosystem Integrity Index (EII)

A tool for evaluating and monitoring integrity of agroecosystems.


See Ecosystem Integrity Index (EII)

Empirical Testing

The process of testing a hypothesis through real-world (direct and/or indirect) observation.

Environmental indicator

A measure to help understand or represent either the state of the environment as a whole or specific aspects of it.

Impact measurement and impact reporting

Impact measurement and impact reporting are terms used to describe the processes by which an organisation, such as a charity or a business, evaluates and publicly reports on the effect it has had on society and/or the environment, or on its progress towards achieving its purpose and intended outcomes.

Metrics and Targets

The measurements and goals used to assess and manage relevant climate-related risks and opportunities.

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E)

In a climate change context, mechanisms put in place at national to local scales to respectively monitor and evaluate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapt to the impacts of climate change, with the aim of systematically identifying, characterising and assessing progress over time.

Monitoring and measurement

A term commonly used throughout the ISO suite of standards, meaning that certain monitoring, measurement and evaluation must be undertaken and periodically reviewed.

Natural Variability

Variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard deviations or statistics of extremes) of the climate on all time and space scales beyond that of individual weather events.

Parts per billion (ppb)

Number of parts of a chemical found in one billion parts of a particular gas, liquid or solid mixture.

Parts per million (ppm)

Number of parts of a chemical found in one million parts of a particular gas, liquid or solid mixture.

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