Abatement potential

The amount of GHG reductions that could be technologically and economically feasible to achieve.

Acid deposition

A phenomenon whereby acidic atmospheric pollutants are deposited on earth.

Acid rain

See acid deposition

Acidification of the Oceans

Chemical reactions that occur when CO2 reacts with seawater in ways that reduce seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration and saturation states of biologically important calcium carbonate minerals.

Air capture

The direct capture of CO2 and other GHGs from the atmosphere.


A proposed new geological epoch resulting from significant human-driven changes to the structure and functioning of the Earth System, including the climate system.

Anthropogenic emissions

Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), precursors of GHGs and aerosols caused by human activities.

Anthropogenic removals

The withdrawal of GHGs from the atmosphere as a result of deliberate human activities.

ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, 2002

An Agreement by the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to reduce haze pollution in Southeast Asia.

Ashkan’s clause

A model clause developed through the Chancery Lane Project that requires contractors and project delivery teams to use sustainable on-site working practices to reduce the energy used in construction.

Avoided deforestation

Protecting native forest in areas that would otherwise be cleared for crops or grassland.

Bamako Convention

See Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movements and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa, Bamako, 1991

Barcelona Convention for Protection against Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea, 1976

A regional framework applicable to countries adjoining or operating in the Mediterranean Sea, to prevent pollution of and protect the natural environments in that sea.

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

An international treaty that seeks to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, by controlling its movement across borders.

Bonn Agreement, 1969

An agreement among the coastal nations of the North Sea in 1969 to cooperate in the avoidance and combating of environmental pollution in the North Sea.

Campaign for Greener Arbitrations

An initiative to reduce the carbon footprint of international arbitrations through behavioural change.


Any substance, radionuclide or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer due to the ability to damage the genome or disrupt the cellular metabolic processes.

Coalition for Rainforest Nations

A voluntary grouping, largely of developing nations with rainforests, which addresses issues surrounding environmental sustainability specific to tropical rainforests.


Any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water, or soil.

Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region, Abidjan, 1981

A comprehensive umbrella agreement for the protection and management of the marine and coastal areas, signed in Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire, 1981

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