Bonn Challenge

An initiative launched by Germany and the IUCN with the aim of reforestation.

Carpathian Convention (Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians)

A framework-type convention pursuing a comprehensive policy and cooperating in the protection and sustainable development of the Carpathians.

Land use

The total of arrangements, activities and inputs undertaken in a certain land cover type (a set of human actions).

Land Use Planning

The process by which a society, through its institutions, decides where socioeconomic activities such as agriculture, housing, industry, recreation, and commerce should take place within its territory.

Land-use change (LUC)

A change from one land use category to another.


Ground (soil or rock and including ice and organic material) that remains at or below 0°C for at least two consecutive years.

Planetary Boundaries

Nine planetary boundaries within which humanity can continue to thrive into the future: climate change, novel entities, ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, ocean acidification, biogeochemical flows, freshwater uses, land-system change, and biosphere integrity.

Protected Area

A clearly-defined geographical space that is recognised, dedicated and managed through legal or other effective means to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

A convention to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs.