Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

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A historic package of measures agreed in 2022 at COP15 of the Convention on Biodiversity, deemed critical to addressing the dangerous loss of biodiversity and restoring natural ecosystems.

The agreement is a solid framework with clear, measurable goals and targets, with complete monitoring, reporting, and review arrangements to track progress complemented by a robust resource mobilisation package.

The agreement includes key global targets to:

  • Restore 30% degraded ecosystems globally (on land and sea) by 2030
  • Conserve and manage 30% areas (terrestrial, inland water, and coastal and marine) by 2030
  • Stop the extinction of known species, and by 2050 reduce tenfold the extinction risk and rate of all species (including unknown)
  • Reduce risk from pesticides by at least 50% by 2030
  • Reduce nutrients lost to the environment by at least 50% by 2030
  • Reduce pollution risks and negative impacts of pollution from all sources by 2030 to levels that are not harmful to biodiversity and ecosystem functions
  • Reduce global footprint of consumption by 2030, including through significantly reducing overconsumption and waste generation and halving food waste
  • Sustainably manage areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, and forestry and substantially increase agroecology and other biodiversity-friendly practices
  • Tackle climate change through nature-based solutions
  • Reduce the rate of introduction and establishment of invasive alien species by at least 50% by 2030
  • Secure the safe, legal and sustainable use and trade of wild species by 2030
  • Green up urban spaces.

The deal will significantly increase the mobilisation of finance for biodiversity from all sources, domestic, international – both public and private – mobilising at least USD 200 billion per year by 2030. It also addresses subsidies harmful to biodiversity, with the commitment to identify by 2025 and eliminate by 2030 a total of at least USD 500 billion per year.

Before the next COP in 2024, all countries must prepare updated National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans as well as National Biodiversity Finance Strategies. The next COPs will consider if the cumulative impact of the national actions is sufficient to reach the global goals and targets for 2030 and 2050.

See also: Convention on Biodiversity

Links

COP15: historic global deal for nature and people (European Union)
COP15 Global Biodiversity Framework: 196 countries to require all large business and financial institutions to assess and disclose their risks, impacts and dependencies on nature (Business for Nature)
Kunming-Montreal Global biodiversity framework - Draft decision submitted by the President (18 December 2022)
'A great step forward for history': Nations promise to protect 30% of Earth by 2030 (Investment Week)