Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
A procedure that ensures that the environmental implications of decisions are taken into account before the decisions are made.
Environmental assessment can be undertaken for individual projects, such as a dam, motorway, airport or factory, on the basis of Directive 2011/92/EU (known as ‘Environmental Impact Assessment’ – EIA Directive) or for public plans or programmes on the basis of Directive 2001/42/EC (known as ‘Strategic Environmental Assessment’ – SEA Directive).
The common principle of both Directives is to ensure that plans, programmes and projects likely to have significant effects on the environment are made subject to an environmental assessment, prior to their approval or authorisation. Consultation with the public is a key feature of environmental assessment procedures.